Opinion polls on whether the UK voted in favour of leaving the EU rightly or wrongly In the case of the Irish border issue, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and which establishes a position of withdrawal that will only come into force if effective alternative arrangements are not demonstrated before the end of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  In January 2017, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom ruled in Miller that the government could invoke Article 50 only if it was authorized to do so by an Act of Parliament.  The government then introduced a bill to this effect, which came into force on 16 March as the European Union Act (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017.  On 29 March, Theresa May triggered Article 50 when Tim Barrow, the UK`s ambassador to the EU, delivered the letter of appeal to European Council President Donald Tusk. 29 March 2019 thus became 29 March 2019 on the date envisaged for the UK`s withdrawal from the EU.   In April 2017, Theresa May declared an early general election on 8 June in an attempt to “strengthen her hand” in the negotiations;  But the election led to a lagging Parliament, the Conservatives lost their majority.
May remained Prime Minister because she formed a minority government on 26 June with a confidence and supply contract with the Democratic Unionist Party.  The most important elements of the draft agreement are: The withdrawal agreement received the support of the European Parliament`s Constitutional Committee on 23 January 2020, allowing the whole of Parliament to approve it in a subsequent vote.    The next day Ursula von der Leyen and Charles Michel signed the withdrawal agreement in Brussels and he was sent to London, where Boris Johnson signed it.  The European Parliament approved ratification on 29 January by 621 votes to 49.   Immediately after the vote, members of the European Parliament joined us in singing Auld Lang Syne.  The Council of the European Union concluded ratification by the EU the following day.  On 14 March 2019, the British Parliament voted for May to ask the EU to postpone Brexit until June and then in October. After May did not approve her approval, she resigned as prime minister in July and was replaced by Boris Johnson. He tried to replace parts of the agreement and pledged to leave the EU before the new deadline.